AI cancer detectors

Researchers suggest artificial intelligence is now better and faster at detecting cancer than clinicians

Squamous carcinoma of the skin
Squamous carcinoma. An AI system distinguishes dangerous skin lesions from benign ones. 

More accurate than dermatologists

An AI system developed by a team from Germany, France and the US can diagnose skin cancer more accurately than dermatologists. In the study, the software was able to accurately detect cancer in 95% of images of cancerous moles and benign spots, whereas a team of 58 dermatologists was accurate 87% of the time.

Surgical treatment of prostate cancer. An algorithm has been developed to diagnose this condition as accurately as a pathologist
Surgical treatment of prostate cancer. An algorithm has been developed to diagnose this condition as accurately as a pathologist. 

An algorithm for prostate cancer

Chinese researchers have developed an algorithm that can diagnose prostate cancer as accurately as a pathologist. Research leader Hongqian Guo of Nanjing University said: “[This] will help pathologists make better, faster diagnoses, as well as eliminating the day-to-day variation in judgment that can creep into human evaluations.”

Software has been developed to accurately contour head and neck tumours
Software has been developed to accurately contour head and neck tumours. 

Targeting head and neck tumours

Researchers at the University of Texas, Houston, have developed software to accurately contour the shape of head and neck cancer tumours. In studies, trained physicians have been shown to make widely varying evaluations of tumour volume. This software enables radiation oncologists to target their treatment more accurately, particularly critical in these types of cancers because of other vulnerable tissue located nearby.
Colon cancer
Pinterest
Colon cancer – early detection is crucial. Photograph: Getty Images

Colorectal cancer

Scientists from Yokohama, Japan, have developed software that can detect colorectal cancer in its earliest stages with 86% accuracy. This type of cancer is often difficult to locate before the tumours become malignant and deadly, as cancerous cells enter the bloodstream, so early detection is critical.

Breast cancer cells: AI-based techniques aim to reduce overdiagnosis and false positives
Breast cancer cells: AI-based techniques aim to reduce over diagnosis and false positives. 

Breast cancer

Researchers at Imperial College London are working with DeepMind Health to develop AI-based techniques to improve the accuracy of breast cancer screening. By studying 7,500 anonymised mammograms, they hope to create software that will reduce over diagnosis and false positives. They aim to report their findings later this year.
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Essential Oils for Cancer: The Truth About What Research Really Says!

As more research about essential oils for cancer is being conducted on natural therapies, it is becoming more than obvious that people do not need to use conventional practices like chemotherapy and radiation to eradicate cancer. Holistic remedies abound and a cursory glance on “Dr. Google” will rank several on the top of most people’s list. Of all the popular natural solutions out there, essential oils for cancer research has gained significant fanfare and for good reason.

In this article we’ll cover:

  1. Essential Oils for Cancer Research
  2. Best Essential Oils for Cancer Patients
  3. Real Life Essential Oils for Cancer Stories
  4. Common Side Effects of Cancer Treatments
  5. Using Essential Oils for Cancer Treatment Side Effects
  6. Essential Oils for Cancer Protocol

Essential Oils for Cancer Research

The truth about essential oils for cancer is four-fold.

First – essential oils for cancer research suggests that oils can help prevent and treat cancer at the cellular level. Additionally, and oftentimes overlooked, essential oils have been shown to be exceptionally effective at managing the side effects related to cancer itself and the side effects people suffer at the hands of medical interventions.

Second – it is critical to recognize that this is not an all-or-nothing approach. Just because you’re taking chemo doesn’t mean that you can’t use essential oils for cancer. The same is true on the flip side of that coin. Far too many patients and healthcare practitioners dichotomize natural from allopathic therapies, and do not give enough emphasis on the practicality of using both together.

Third – we need to put things into proper perspective and remember that the peer-reviewed articles we have that evaluate the ability of essential oils for cancer to prevent, stop and even reverse the growth of various malignant lines are in vitro. In other words, we don’t many live human trials with hundreds or thousands of participants, we have studies that are testing human cells in a petri dish. This is not to say that these studies are useless. The point we need to take from this is that essential oils for cancer is still experimental

Fourth – with this said, there are literally thousands upon thousands of testimonials of people on the Internet claiming that essential oils for cancer cured them. And this cannot be disputed because a vast majority of them are your normal, not-trying-to-make-a-buck kind of people who are not trying to sell a product. These are legitimate medical “miracles,” which are ultimately going to be the basis for further research.

Best Essential Oils for Cancer Patients

Of all of the studies in the medical literature, this is just a sample of those that suggest essential oils for cancer therapy can benefit patients.

Citrus Oils

The most prominent and noteworthy component of citrus oils is d-limonene, confirmed to be a potent cancer-fighting agent. In the words of the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s open chemisry database,

Clary Sage

Sclareol, the primary component of clary sage essential oil, has promising anti-cancer effects in laboratory evaluations. During studies dating back to 1999 to just last year, it has been shown to impact the way that cancer cells proliferate by literally killing through a process known as apoptosis.

Apoptosis is interesting because it literally triggers the cell to commit “suicide,” more formally known as programmed cell death, which suggests that clary sage oil could have profound effects on the prevention and treatment of cancer lines.

Sclareol, has shown some promising things in lab tests. Over the last couple of decades but as recently as this year (2015), studies have emerged that analyze sclareol’s effect on cancer cells. With the caveat that these benefits occurred within the confines of lab cultures and dose adjustments, sclareol may have an impact on the way that cancer cells proliferate, and they could help to induce apoptosis (cancer cell death).

While this does not tell us how much potential sclareol has to directly treat cancer – and it’s exciting to think about where that could go one day! – it is a common thread that we see in many antioxidant-rich essential oils. This is especially interesting for clary sage, because some claim that it is “estrogenic” due to the sclareol content and should be avoided by estrogen-dominent cancer patients.

This, of course, is a myth and essential oil safety expert Robert Tisserand puts it this way

Frankincense

Of all the cancer-fighting essential oils, frankincense (Boswellia sacra, B. carterii, B. frereana, and B. serrata) is the most controversial. The research out there has been scrutinized because of its industry-bias, and some claim that there are no chemical compounds in frankincense oil that can kill cancer. With that said, just do a search on the Internet and healing stories abound. It is hard to dispute with the thousands of people who state their cancer was cured after using frankincense.

The biggest issue some chemists and Aromatherapists have is regarding boswellic acids (BAs), which have been proven to be “cytotoxic to ovarian cancer cells at pharmacologically achievable concentrations” and “may form the basis of a novel anticancer treatment for ovarian cancer, perhaps alongside conventional chemotherapy.” A known compound in frankincense resin, the issue is that boswellic acids are too large and heavy to be included in the volatile (evaporated) components that make up essential oils.

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In other words, BA’s are not in the essential oils, but who cares? Studies continue to emerge demonstrating the anti-cancer effects of frankincense essential oil on bladder, breast and skin cancers!

Additionally, adding frankincense essential oil for cancer to a healthcare protocol goes well beyond the anti-tumor effects. For people utilizing conventional medical treatments, the pain and other side effects can be worse than the cancer itself! This is especially true for brain cancer patients who oftentimes experience cerebral edema (swelling in the head) after their tumors have been surgically removed or at the hands of radiation therapy. To make matters worse, steroid treatment is commonly administered, complicate the side effects even more.

Frankincense extract, which contains the essential oil, can possibly help this particular problem. A clinical trial published in 2011 evaluated 44 patients with cerebral edema and, after taking 4200 mg/day of a Boswellia serrata (BS) extract was administered, the swelling was reduced by 75% or more in 60% of the participants. The researchers conclude that, “BS could potentially be steroid-sparing for patients receiving brain irradiation.

Essential oils for cancer have also shown to help manage depression, pain and boost the immune system.

Lavender

A popular theme in the natural health discussion is that antioxidants are the super healers that we all need. Free radicals created by chemicals, pollutants, stress and toxins are the culprits for a cascade of cellular damage, immune inhibition, and limitless unforeseen health risks – including cancer and chronic illness.

Suffice it to say that, if free radicals are the super villains, antioxidants are the super heroes.

The body itself creates antioxidants in the form of the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) among others. Unfortunately, our bodies are exposed to a constant onslaught of free radicals that drain our naturally occurring antioxidants and we are forced to supplement.

Believe it not, lavender essential oil for cancer joins the ranks as an effective natural antioxidant support.

Of the major antioxidant enzyme mentioned above, Chinese researchers observed that lavender essential oil can upregulate levels of all three in mice within the first day of treatment and protect brain cells again stroke and injury! Romanian researchers noted similar activity by simply inhaling lavender for an hour each day. According to the study, “Taken together, our results suggest that antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities [of healthy brain cells] of the lavender essential oils are the major mechanisms for their potent neuroprotective effects against scopolamine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain,” that can lead to cancer and other illnesses.

Lemongrass

Several studies have evaluated the potential cancer-fighting properties of lemongrass essential oil.

In 2009, an article was published that evaluated the essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus (a variety of lemongrass) for its in vitro cytotoxicity ability against 12 human cancer cell lines; as well as its anticancer effects on mice in vivo. The results were remarkable. Researchers discovered that the essential oil triggers a variety of mechanisms that kill cancer cells. “Our results indicate that the oil has a promising anticancer activity and causes loss in tumor cell viability by activating the apoptotic process as identified by electron microscopy.”

Myrrh

The role that myrrh essential oil plays in natural cancer therapies is a becoming a popular topic in the scientific community. Particularly, with how it interacts with frankincense essential oils. In 2013, one of the most thorough studies on the topic was published in the journal Oncology Letters, and this is what researcher discovered:

“The effects of the two essential oils, independently and as a mixture, on five tumor cell lines, MCF-7, HS-1, HepG2, HeLa and A549, were investigated using the MTT assay. The results indicated that the MCF-7 and HS-1 cell lines showed increased sensitivity to the myrrh and frankincense essential oils compared with the remaining cell lines. In addition, the anticancer effects of myrrh were markedly increased compared with those of frankincense, however, no significant synergistic effects were identified.”

Don’t think that researchers are evaluating frankincense and myrrh together as complementary therapies because of the Christmas story. Oh, no. The resins from frankincense and myrrh trees have been traditionally prescribed simultaneously in Chinese medicine for years. Used primarily to treat inflammatory diseases, blood stagnation, frankincense and myrrh therapy is exceptionally effective to relieve swelling and pain. Even though researchers have not observed a synergistic effect regarding cancer, “A previous study identified that the combination of frankincense and myrrh oils exhibited synergistic effects on harmful bacterial infections Cryptococcus neoformans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.”

Peppermint & Spearmint

In 2014, the journal BioMed Research International published an article uncovering that peppermint and spearmint is highly effective at managing common side effects people that suffer at the hands of medical cancer therapies; especially vomiting and nausea. Taken directly from the study we find that these oils, as well as some others, can help with a variety of conditions cancer patients suffer from:

  • “Cancer patients suffer from different side effects which can be preferentially reduced by alternative methods. EOs are used in the aromatherapy for reducing the agony of brain cancer patients. EO is efficient in depression and reduction of anxiety in cancer patients. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, one of the most frequently used treatment method in cancer, are prone to various side effects. These are nausea and vomiting.
  • Mentha spicata [spearmint] and M. piperita [peppermint] have been found to be effective in overcoming these emetic conditions (chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, CINV) along with the reduction of expenditure on treatment in the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
  • EOs of Leptospermum scoparium [Manuka myrtle] and Kunzea ericoides [Karo Greenfingers] were reported to prevent mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy when used in the preparation of mouthwash.
  • Some cancer patients having metastatic tumorigenic ulcers of skin develop necrosis and malodour. Patients suffering from such malodour were reported to have improvement in their state on treatment of these ulcers with the mixture of EOs having eucalyptus, melaleuca, lemongrass, lemon, clove leaf, and thyme on a 40% ethanol base.
  • Lavender EO is widely used in aromatherapy and is found to be beneficial in reducing the distress in cancer patients. Hence, EOs serve as the valuable preparations in amelioration of the side effects and sufferings of the cancer patients.”

Thyme

The journal Molecules published a study in 2010 that evaluated how cancer cells were evaluated could stand up against ten powerful essential oils. Included was thyme and it stood out from the crowd as the most beneficial against prostate, lung carcinoma, and breast cancers.

As one of the primary herbs to facilitate estrogen binding, thyme oil can help balance and regulate hormones. Like we noted above with clary sage, thyme is not the only potential estrogenic essential oil noted for its anticancer potential. It should be interesting to note that, because cancer frequently holds receptors for estrogen and can theoretically be “fed” by any compound that is estrogenic, people at risk of developing certain cancer lines are oftentimes advised to avoid estrogen.

With the potent anticancer properties that we have seen in just the few studies noted above, it is more than likely that we will soon discover that the so-called “cancer-causing” plants and foods people are avoiding actually hold the key that our bodies need to unlock the cancer-fighting potential we all contain! Source WebMed

Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

No matter your age or health, it’s good to know possible signs and symptoms of cancer. By themselves, they aren’t enough to diagnose the disease. But they can provide clues to you and your doctor so that you can find and treat it as soon as possible. Treatment works best when your cancer is still small and hasn’t spread. Early treatment gives you a better shot at curing your cancer.

To be clear: These symptoms don’t always mean cancer. There are plenty of common ailments that can make you feel this way. That’s why you go to the doctor — to take to take a closer look at your health and take action.

Pain: Bone cancer often hurt from the beginning. Some brain tumors cause headaches that last for days and don’t get better with treatment. Pain can also be a late sign of cancer, so it’s good to see a doctor if you don’t know why you have it or it doesn’t go away.

Weight loss without trying: It’s common to lose weight when you have cancer. It’s often one of the signs of  cancer that people notice first. Almost half the people with cancer lose weight by the time they get diagnosed.

Fatigue: If you’re tired all the time and rest doesn’t help, tell your doctor. Leukaemia often wears you out, or you could have blood loss from colon or stomach cancer. Cancer-related weight loss can leave you exhausted, too.

Fever: If it’s high or sticks around for more than 3 days, call your doctor. Some blood cancers, like lymphoma, cause a fever that lasts for days or even weeks.

Changes in your skin: Get unusual or new moles, bumps, or marks on your body checked. You want to be sure skin cancer isn’t lurking. Your skin can also provide clues to other kinds of cancers. If it’s darkened, looks yellow or red, itches, sprouts more hair, or if you have an unexplained rash, let your doctor take a look. It could be a sign of liver, ovarian, or kidney cancer.

Sores that don’t heal: Spots that bleed and won’t go away are also signs of skin cancer. If you’re a smoker, chew tobacco, or drink a lot of alcohol, you’re at higher risk of oral cancer. It sometimes starts as sores in your mouth.

Men: What to Watch Out For

The three most common cancers in men are prostate, lung, and colorectal. Keep an eye out for:

Cough or hoarseness that won’t go away: See the doctor if a cough is severe, lasts more than 3 weeks, or you see blood when you cough.

Trouble peeing: A swollen prostate can make it hard to go, or it may make you have to go a lot. Tell your doctor if you have pain when you pee or blood in your urine.

Change in bowel habits. Diarrhoea or constipation that lasts for more than 4 weeks can be a sign of colorectal cancer. Blood in your poop isn’t normal. Tell your doctor.

Women: What to Watch Out For

The types that affect women most are breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Women can also have cancer of the uterus, endometrium, cervix, vagina, or vulva. Keep an eye out for:

Bleeding or discharge: Get checked out if it happens between periods or after menopause. Endometrial cancer can make you bleed when you don’t expect it.

Changes in appetite: Ovarian cancer can make you feel full or make it hard to eat. Other cancers that only women get can cause indigestion or nausea. Cancer isn’t the only illness that brings on changes in your appetite, but keep it in mind if you’ve had trouble eating for 2 weeks or longer.

Belly pain and bloating: In most cases, feeling gassy, crampy, and bloated are not due to cancer, but check with your doctor if you are having these types of symptoms that persist and don’t go away.

Breast changes: Tell the doctor if:

  • Your breasts feel different.
  • You find lumps.
  • You notice sudden changes in size.
  • You have discharge from your nipples.
  • You see spots or other changes in the skin around your nipples.

Cancer, How Cancer Starts, How Cancer Spreads, Where and Why, Animation

The number of cells in a tissue is determined by the balance between cell division and cell death. Uncontrollable cell division leads to formation of abnormal growths called tumors. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are slow-growing and constrained by surrounding connective tissue so they do not spread to other organs. They can still be harmful or even kill by pressing on nearby nerves, brain tissue or blood vessels. Examples of benign tumor include pituitary tumors which may press on optic nerves and cause loss of vision. Cancers are malignant tumors – tumors that can spread beyond of the limit of original organ where it comes from and to other organs of the body.

How cancer starts

Cancer starts from damage in the DNA of a cell. This DNA damage is called mutation. Mutations happen when the cell duplicates its DNA prior to cell division and makes mistakes. These damages are usually detected and repaired before the cell can divide but sometimes, some of them may be ignored and transferred to daughter cells.
If the mutation is located in one of many genes that control the cell cycle, it may affect the regulation of cell cycle in the cell carrying it, and make the cell divide faster than it supposed to. Usually, one mutation is not enough to cause cancer, but as it makes the cell cycle control less reliable, many more DNA damages/mutations would go unnoticed. Cancer is usually the result of accumulation of many mutations of genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA repair. This commonly happens over a long period of time, over many rounds of cell divisions, and this explains why cancers are more common in older people.

Some people are said to be predisposed to cancer. This is because they are born with a mutation that makes them more likely to develop a certain type of cancer. This mutation alone is not enough to cause cancer but it starts the process of making cells cancerous. The person carrying it is one step further down the road towards developing a cancer than others who do not have the mutation.

How cancer spreads

Cancer cells do not stick together like normal cells, they move and invade nearby tissues, organs, this is local spread. They may also spread to further away organs by means of blood and lymph circulation, this is systemic spread. Metastasis is the spreading of cancers to non-adjacent organs. Cancer cells from the original tumor, or primary cancer, can break out and maybe taken up by a blood or a lymph vessel for a ride throughout the body. They can then squeeze out from the vessels into other tissues and start a new tumor growth in the new location which will become secondary cancer.

Where do cancers usually spread and why?

While traveling in the bloodstream, cancer cell usually stops at the first place where the vessel getting so narrow that it gets stuck. As blood flow from most organs goes to the capillaries of the lungs, this is where cancers spread the most. Lungs are indeed the most common site of secondary cancers.

Likewise, while traveling in the lymphatic system, cancer cells commonly get stuck in nearest lymph nodes, where the vessels get narrower. This is the reason why surgeons usually remove nearby lymph nodes when removing tumors.

Animation : https://youtu.be/GhfrHjBX5eA

9 Anti-Cancer Foods You Cannot Ignore

With modern lifestyles, people are exposed to multiple carcinogenic agents on a daily basis. It is hence no wonder that cancer rates are soaring. To keep far away from this terrifying disease, below is a list of cancer foods that cannot be ignored.

1. Flavonoid-Rich Berries

These berries include currants, cherries, cranberries, hawthorn berries, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries and strawberries. As powerful antioxidants, flavonoids can be more potent than traditional antioxidants like vitamin C and E, beta-carotene, selenium and zinc. And antioxidants are well-known to be crucial in the prevention of cancer. So pop a berry or two daily as a snack, rather than the nutrition-less sweets, for optimal cancer protection

2. Turmeric

Love curry?

Curry is one of the delicious foods that protect against cancer, if it contains turmeric. This is because turmeric contains the phytonutrient, curcumin, which has been found to be anti-inflammatory and cancer-inhibiting.

3. Cruciferous Vegetables

These vegetables include cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, cress, horseradish, kohlrabi, mustard, radish and turnip. They are beneficial because they contain the phytonutrient, glucosinolates, which has been found to detoxify certain carcinogens and help lower cancer risk, especially colon cancer.

4. Garlic

Garlic contains about 200 biologically active compounds, such as sulfur containing amino-acids, glutathione and cysteine, that have powerful protective functions against cancer formation, growth and metastasis. For the best effect, garlic should be eaten freshly chopped and raw. But if the smell and taste of raw garlic is really intolerable, it could be lightly stir-fried with vegetables, or boiled in soups.

5. Mushrooms

Mushrooms aren’t only tasty to eat, they can also protect one from cancer. At least some mushrooms can. Like the reishi (Ganoderma), shiitake and maitake, which the Chinese and Japanese have been using for ages to boost immunity, protect against as well as treat cancer.

6. Yogurt

Various species of probiotics (eg. Bifidobacterium lactis) present in yoghurt have been found to improve immunity and detoxify many carcinogens, including hormones, meat carcinogens and environmental toxins.

7. Spinach

Many people formed their impression of spinach from watching the cartoon Popeye as a kid. But is this green food as wonderful as it is portrayed to be?

Long reputed for increasing power and energy, spinach is also an anti-cancer food because of its richness in chlorophyll and carotene. Besides protecting one from cancer, it is also rich in iron, folic acid, vitamins and minerals, as well as the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (which has anti-aging properties).

If there’s only one green vegetable to be eaten, then it must be spinach.

8. Fiber-Rich Foods

Fiber in plant foods are important not only for healthy bowels, they are also important for preventing colorectal cancer. Fiber facilitates the movement of food through the digestive tract, so there is less time for any carcinogens in one’s food to be absorbed, and less carcinogens are produced by the “rotting” food in the gut as it passes through.

Whole grains (e.g. unpolished rice), beans, seeds, lentils and vegetables make rich sources of fiber, so be sure to include them in the daily meals.

9. Bee Propolis

Propolis is a substance produced by bees to protect themselves and their hives against bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Rich in bioflavonoids, vitamins and amino acids, it has been found to be immunity-enhancing and cancer-preventing.

Does coffee cause cancer?

Coffee

There is no research proving that coffee is a carcinogen.

Cancer is a complex disease, and it is not always easy to determine its cause. Researchers have investigated many different substances to find out if they increase a person’s risk of cancer. Substances that can cause cancer are known as carcinogens.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed more than 1,000 studies in humans and animals and did not find adequate evidence to indicate that coffee is a carcinogen.

However, more research into the link between coffee and cancer is necessary. A 2017 study suggests that drinking coffee may, in fact, lower the risk of developing specific forms of cancer.

Although older studies did sometimes find a link between drinking coffee and developing cancer, the cause was often smoking rather than coffee. People who smoke also tend to drink coffee.

Roasted coffee beans contain a substance called acrylamide, which is a byproduct of the roasting process.

The IARC classify acrylamide as a Group 2A probable carcinogen. This means that there is substantial evidence suggesting that acrylamide can cause cancer in animals. However, more research is necessary to determine if it also increases the risk of cancer in people.

Coffee does not contain acrylamide unless it has come from roasted coffee beans. People who are concerned about acrylamide can choose an alternative type of coffee.

Acrylamide also occurs in:

  • cigarette smoke
  • industrial processes, such as making plastic, paper, and dyes
  • starchy foods that need cooking at a high temperature, for example, fries and potato chips
  • food packaging and some adhesives, in small quantities

People can limit their exposure to acrylamide by being aware of cooking methods and not smoking. They can roast or bake potatoes instead of frying them and toast bread until it is light rather than dark brown.

There is also a link between drinking very hot liquids and cancer of the esophagus, or food pipe. Drinking coffee that is hotter than 149ºF may increase a person’s risk of developing esophageal cancer. Therefore, it is best to allow coffee to cool slightly before drinking it, particularly if it does not contain milk.

What are the risks?

Person eating burger junk fast food.

An unhealthful diet may increase the risk of cancer.

Most cancers occur due to a combination of factors, including people’s genes, environment, and lifestyle.

Some key risk factors for cancer include:

  • smoking
  • being overweight
  • an unhealthful diet
  • drinking alcohol
  • sun exposure
  • workplace risks, such as exposure to certain chemicals and radiation
  • specific inherited genes, although this is a relatively uncommon cause

These risk factors can combine to increase the likelihood of a person developing cancer. For example, someone may have an unhealthful diet and not do enough exercise.

Drinking coffee as part of a healthful lifestyle is unlikely to be a health risk, but excessive coffee consumption can cause health problems. Coffee contains caffeine, which is a stimulant that makes the brain more alert and temporarily increases blood pressure.

People who have heart problems may choose to avoid coffee if they experience heart palpitations after drinking it. Coffee can also cause acid reflux in some people and may irritate the stomach.

Drinking coffee in the evening can disrupt sleep, and a good night’s sleep is essential for health. It might be beneficial to replace coffee with a decaffeinated version or a herbal tea later in the day.

Roasted coffee beans contain some acrylamide. Coffee drinkers can avoid this chemical by choosing unroasted coffee beans, although these do taste very different. A variety of unroasted coffees are available to purchase online.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommend that adults consume no more than 4–5 cups of coffee a day. The American Academy of Pediatrics advise that children or adolescents do not consume products that contain caffeine.

Doctors generally also suggest that women who are pregnant or breast-feeding limit their caffeine consumption. However, the guidelines on this vary and can be difficult to follow because coffee strength differs too. People trying to limit their coffee intake may wish to seek medical advice or cut out coffee and other caffeinated products completely.

If a person wants to reduce the amount of coffee that they drink, they should do so slowly. Cutting down on caffeine can cause headaches. Replacing coffee with tea, decaffeinated coffee, water, or herbal teas can reduce a person’s caffeine intake. Black teas and some herbal teas, such as green tea, do contain caffeine but usually less than a cup of coffee.

Are there health benefits to drinking coffee?

Coffee beans

Some studies have indicated that coffee may have health benefits.

A 2017 study reviewed a wide range of evidence and concluded that drinking moderate amounts of coffee is generally safe. According to this study, drinking coffee may also have health benefits.

The study compared people who drank no coffee with people who drank the following amounts of coffee each day:

  • approximately 4–7 cups
  • about 1–3 cups
  • one extra cup

The researchers found that all the groups drinking coffee had a lower rate of cancer than those who did not drink any coffee. People who drank more coffee had a reduced risk of developing the following cancers:

The study did not find a strong link between coffee consumption and the following cancers:

  • gastric
  • colorectal
  • ovarian
  • thyroid
  • breast
  • pancreatic
  • laryngeal
  • lymphoma

Other benefits of drinking coffee included a lower risk of death from all causes and a lower risk of heart disease, liver disease, and Parkinson’s disease. The researchers found that drinking 3–4 cups of coffee per day gave the most benefit.

Coffee also contains antioxidants. These are substances that may stop or slow down cell damage. There is a need for more research on the potential health benefits of antioxidants.

Takeaway

Current research suggests that coffee is unlikely to cause cancer. It may reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer, but there is not yet enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

As part of a healthful diet, coffee is likely to be beneficial. Drinking up to 4 cups of coffee a day should not pose any risks to health and may reduce the risk of certain diseases.

6 Evidence Based Benefits Of Turmeric For Ovarian Cancer

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Ovarian cancer affects the ovaries that are situated on either side of the uterus. This cancer is not easily detectable until it has spread to the abdomen and pelvis. Unfortunately, symptoms of ovarian cancer often mimic other conditions.

Some of them are – abdominal pressure, bloating, pain, pelvic discomfort, persistent gas, indigestion or nausea, constipation, frequent urination, loss of appetite etc.

The treatment of this cancer produces severe side effects such as neuropathic pain, kidney damage, hear loss, hair loss etc.

 Natural products that can reduce these side-effects and help in or after the treatment are very sought after. Such a potential is seen in the common spice, turmeric.

6 Proven Benefits of Turmeric in Ovarian Cancer

The anti-cancer property of turmeric is beneficial in a number of cancers including ovarian cancer. Turmeric can be useful in killing the cancerous cells and preventing the cell proliferation. It can also aid in protecting the normal cells from damages procured by the drugs used for the treatment.

1.Turmeric kills ovarian cancer cells

The treatment of a cancer requires killing the cells that have an abnormal rapid multiplication, i.e. the malignant cells. The drugs that are employed induce cell death by interfering in various molecular pathways that ensure the survival of cancer cells.

These drugs are chemicals isolated from natural substances or synthetically synthesized. Turmeric possesses certain compounds that work on a similar line and can induce cell death or apoptosis in a number of cancer cells.

The compound curcumin has significant anti-cancer activity that is useful in inducing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

The apoptosis induced by curcumin is known to be carried out in a number of ways. It regulates several cell signalling pathways that ensure survival of cancer cells, such as anti-apoptotic pathways, cell survival pathways, mitochondrial pathways etc.

There are multiple pathways known for the induction of apoptosis or cell death by curcumin in the ovarian cancer.

It is known to induce apoptosis by increasing the expression of Caspase-3(a protein involved in apoptosis) and lowering the expression of NF-kappa B (involved in cancer development). This could inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer by up to 89%.

A role of enhanced expression of micro RNAs (vital elements in the cell that contribute to genetic expression) promoted by curcumin is also found in stimulation of apoptosis and prevention of cell proliferation in the ovarian cancer.

The reduction of the expression of cancer cell pro-survival proteins like Bcl-2 & survivin, Akt signalling (a pro-survival pathway) and activation of pro-apoptotic p38 MAPK pathway by curcumin also kills the ovarian cancer cells.

What does it mean?
It means turmeric use can help to kill the ovarian cancer cells. The chief component curcumin interferes with various molecular pathways and induces cell death significantly.

2.Turmeric inhibits angiogenesis and prevents tumour growth

Angiogenesis or development of blood vessels is a requisite for cancer survival just like a normal cell, as it is the process that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the cells.

In case of ovarian cancer, an abnormality in angiogenesis process occurs due to imbalance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. This results into an uncontrolled angiogenesis and thus, an uncontrolled multiplication of malignant cells.

The primary factors involved in angiogenesis are VEGF and angiopoietins, which has been found to be associated with the ovarian cancer.

Tumorigenesis or progression of tumour goes hand in hand with angiogenesis, i.e. angiogenesis is indispensable for tumour growth.

Therefore, in order to prevent tumour growth inhibition of angiogenesis is very important.

Turmeric is one of the natural agents that can inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. It targets various signalling pathways involved in angiogenesis.

Curcumin inhibits expressions of protein kinase C, angiopoietin-1 and NF-kappa B which are involved in the process of angiogenesis.

In a study on ovarian cancer, curcumin suppressed the NF-kappa B pathway to inhibit angiogenesis and thus the tumour growth. It significantly reduced the tumour size, by as much as 55%.

What does it mean?
It means turmeric consumption can inhibit the process of angiogenesis (formation of blood vessels), essential for the tumour growth. This can help in treatment of ovarian cancer by reducing the tumour growth and cell proliferation.

3.Turmeric sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy

A hurdle to chemotherapy or radiotherapy is the heterogeneity of ovarian tumours. Not all kinds of tumour tissues equally respond to a particular drug and this response also varies on an individual basis.

The sensitivity of these therapies is reduced primarily by the action of pro-survival molecules in the cancer cells.

A way of overcoming this problem is making the ovarian cancer cells sensitive to these treatments. Curcumin from turmeric can be an effective way of doing this.

It has been found to increase the sensitivity of platinum based drugs which are used to treat various types of cancers, including ovarian cancer. It reduced expression of various factors such as, NF-kappa B and thus, induced apoptosis.

In a study, it was found that administration of curcumin 6 hours before chemotherapy or radiotherapy enhanced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

This activity of curcumin was a result of its ability to down-regulate pro-survival proteins, such as Bcl and Mcl-1. This increased the apoptosis  even low doses of the chemotherapeutic drug.

What does it mean?
It means turmeric administration can enhance the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This can improve the effect of these therapies and can help in a better treatment.

4.Turmeric can overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs

Chemoresistance is the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Solid tumours are mostly prone to chemoresistance due to the survival mechanisms of the tumour cells.

Development of resistance to chemotherapy is a common phenomena observed in the ovarian cancer. The main reason behind this is domination of anti-apoptotic mechanisms over apoptotic ones that promote survival of the cancer.

Turmeric is an efficacious natural agent against the chemoresistance. Curcumin has been found to overcome the resistance by its action on various molecular pathways.

Its effect on chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells is known to activate various pathways of apoptosis to induce cell death. This can help in tackling resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs.

Cisplatin is a widely used drug for ovarian cancer treatment. It tends to introduce various genetic alterations that result into growth promotion in the ovarian cancer cells.

Curcumin is known to inhibit the cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cells. The mechanism involved is the induction of superoxide (a free radical) generation, cell division arrest and promotion of apoptosis.

What does it mean?
It means combining turmeric with chemotherapy can be beneficial in conquering the chemoresistance, commonly observed in ovarian cancer. The interference of turmeric in various survival molecular pathways is able to reverse the resistance.

5.Turmeric can help prevent ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a hard to detect ailment. By the time it is detected, it becomes difficult to treat the cancer and survival chances of the patient become dim.

Prevention of occurrence of this cancer therefore, becomes valuable. A number of natural substances are known that have chemopreventive properties, i.e. properties that can prevent cancer.

Turmeric is one of these natural substances that possess extensive chemopreventive activity.

The chief component of turmeric, i.e. curcumin alters numerous molecular pathways that are involved in the process of carcinogenesis (cancer formation). It reduces the inflammatory responses and signalling that promote cancer development.

It also inhibits the pro-survival pathways in the cancer cells and lead to cancer killing.

Curcumin has been found to alter the changes in genes that can lead to cancer. Its variety of action inhibits various genetic expressions to prevent the development of the cancer.

What does it mean?
It means inclusion of turmeric in diet can enable the body to fight the changes that can lead to development of ovarian cancer.

6.Turmeric can reduce side effects of cancer therapy

Chemo-toxicity or radio-toxicity is the side effects procured by the use of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Most of these therapies cause serious side-effects ranging from neuropathy to organ damage.

Many of these side-effects can be life-threatening and severely affect the quality of life of the patient.

A common drug used for ovarian cancer treatment results into a number of toxicities such as allergic reactions, suppression of bone marrow activity, kidney damage etc.

Turmeric can ameliorate several of these side-effects and protect the healthy cells. Curcumin has been found to reduce the damage to kidneys induce by cisplatin by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

It has also been found to reduce the side-effects such as neurotoxicity caused by the platinum-based drugs used in ovarian cancer treatment.

Radiation therapy is also employed in the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially the recurrent ones. Radiations also cause several side-effects like, bone marrow suppression, cataract, dermatitis etc.

Turmeric is a radio-protector as well, i.e. it protects the normal cells from the side-effects caused by radiation and also reduces these side-effects significantly.

What does it mean?
It means turmeric intake can reduce the side-effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At the same time it also protects the healthy cells from the damage induced by these therapies

Precautions

Dietary use of turmeric is valuable against cancer. Turmeric in dietary amounts is considered to be safe and does not pose any harm.

Taking some precautions is necessary especially if turmeric supplements are used.

Turmeric may cause acid reflux if stomach is empty. Therefore, it is better avoided on an empty stomach. 

Turmeric supplements should not be taken concomitantly with any other therapeutic agent. Maintain a 3-4 hour gap between the two. Also take a doctor’s advice on this.

Turmeric causes blood thinning which can elevate the risk of bleeding problems. Therefore, turmeric supplements should be avoided by people with bleeding disorders but dietary amounts are safe. 

Being a blood thinner, turmeric may interrupt the process of blood clotting after a surgery. Therefore, its use should be discontinued around 2 weeks before a surgery.

Turmeric as a spice, in high amounts,  can enhance the risk of developing kidney stones (only in those susceptible to it) and can worsen gout condition. meric supplements.

Turmeric supplements should be avoided by pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Conclusion

Turmeric is a highly beneficial natural product for the patients of ovarian cancer.The anti-cancer property of turmeric is useful in killing the ovarian cancer cells.

Moreover, it can also assist in the treatments used by enhancing the sensitivity of the cancer cells, overcoming the resistance to chemotherapy and reducing the toxicity induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

The regular dietary use of turmeric has a great implication in terms of the prevention of cancer development in the body.